The group of Neuropharmacology of Motivated Behavior is a credited Research Group of the Complutense University of Madrid, with a 20 year experience and more than 50 papers in international journals in different lines of research, including the role of the cannabinoid system in metabolic homeostasis, perinatal and postweaning food programing and the development of new medications for obesity.
Children malnutrition by excessive or insufficient eating is a worrying problem in our society because it has been associated to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease or diabetes in adulthood. Based on the \"Predictive-Adaptative Response Hypothesis” and the \"Early Protein Hypothesis\", we considered the possibility that the consequences of infant feeding occur in terms of a continuum ranging from malnutrition to overeating. To test this hypothesis we submitted 6 groups of Wistar male rats divided first by the infancy diet and secondly by adolescence-adult diet. Children Diets (PND 22 - PND 43) were: C (standard chow), P (free choice between standard chow and a palatable food with 20% less proteins) or S (20% standard chow and 80% of palatable food with 40% less proteins); and adolescence-adults diets (PND 44 - death) were P or C diets to each previous group. We studied behavioral patterns of intake after weighing the animals and the food each week. We tested the anxiety-related behavior in adulthood by Elevated Plus Maze and Open-field tests. Finally, levels of leptin and insulin were determined by commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) kits (Raybiotech, GA, USA, for insulin and Biovendor, CZ, for leptin). Results show that S infancy group had less weight gain than C or P childhood groups in spite of eating more Kilocalories per Kilogram than all the other groups and show less anxiety-related behavior. On the other hand, P Childhood group had higher levels of leptin than the other groups when they also were P in the adult period and lower insulin levels when they were C in adulthood. Here, we show that early exposure to protein restriction can have long-term metabolic and behavioral consequences.
Mustapha Bashir Kazaure is affiliated to Jigawa State Polytechnic College of Science and Technology, Nigeria
A survey on solid waste management for sustainable development and public health in Dutse metropolis was conducted. One hundred (100) designed questionnaires were distributed across four major areas within the town which included Yadi, GidaDubu, Dan Masara and Mopol base quarters were twenty five (25) are distributed to each of the four sites. From the result, it was discovered that residence of Danmasara quarters discharge all their waste 100(100%) in government approve sites while Yadi quarters are the lowest in terms of discharging waste in government designated locations 6(24%).Based on flooding, Yadi recorded the highest rate of flooding 21(84%) while Dan masaraquartes recorded the lowest 9(36%). Proper waste discharge was also summarized according to educational status of individual respondents within the affected areas under study. It could be observed that people with secondary education had the highest of (47%) while informal education recorded the lowest (08%) in terms of proper waste discharge respectively. It is concluded that most of places in Dutse metropolis do not access to drainage system as well as government designed areas for waste disposal and hence, it is recommended that government should provide adequate waste disposal sites to each area within Dutse metropolis.