Day 1 :
Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata di Trieste, Italy
Giulio Barocco has a Master of Science in Prevention and Complex Actions, a Graduate Degree in Health Professions of Prevention Sciences and a Bachelor’s Degree as Food Merceology and Prevention Technician. Since 2007 he has held an Expert position for the integration and joint management of food safety and nutrition quality at the Public Health Agency of Trieste (ASUITS). He acts as an Advisor for the development of food and nutrition projects and policies in the framework of the “Gaining Health” program (Regional Health System of the Region Friuli Venezia Giulia). He has developed several integrated programs on nutrition, food security and food safety for public institutions at local and regional level.
Multidimensional Survey of catering in elderly care homes in Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, Italy (2016) coordinated by Local Health Agency (LHA) of Trieste has shown some critical aspects in the quantity–quality profile of food administered in the segment of welfare catering. The formulation of meals can be characterized by the excessive use of processed raw materials and incorrect preparation practices which, although meeting the caloric and macronutrient needs, do not always guarantee a sufficient protection from oxidative stress. At some nursing homes, losses of up to 70% of antiradical power of several vegetable dishes have been observed such as demonstrated by University of Trieste. This is a serious problem for institutionalized elders as, according to literature, the prevalence of denutrition and the risk of malnutrition exceed 20% and 50% respectively of the guests. In view of these findings, the LHA has adopted Nutrient Analysis Critical Control Points (NACCP) process as a working tool for the integration of hygiene best practices and measures to prevent the damage of some nutrient fractions during the various steps of all production processes (food supply, storage, preparation and cooking methods). To maximize the intake of bioactive compounds by consuming protective meals new criteria have been introduced into public procurement contracts. Criteria establish more raw materials, such as fresh fish, lower exposure of food to degradation agents by redefining the timing of the production flows, workloads, technological systems used. Accurate declination of the process under examination has allowed to serve meals that can guarantee a sufficient protection from oxidative stress to elderly. Integrating the NACCP process and good nutritional practice with the criteria of green public procurement and sustainable development goals falls within the broad framework of actions aimed at implementing principles of Health in All Policies ratified by the WHO.
Mukorgawa Women’s University, Japan
Yukio Yamori MD, Ph.D. is a Former WHO Expert Committee Member on Cardiovascular Diseases, Professor Emeritus of Kyoto University, and currently Director of Mukogawa Women’s University Institute for World Health Development and President, Hyogo Prefecture Health Promotion Association. He is an honorary member for numerous organizations such as Stroke Council of American Heart Association and High Blood Pressure Research Council of Australia. He won CIBA Award for Hypertension Research from American Heart Association (1982), Beltz Award for Nutritional Factors-related to CVD (1993), the Order of Purple Ribbon from Japanese Government (1998) and Special Award from Japanese Society of Hypertension (2008) and Orders of the Sacred Treasure from Japanese Government (2012). He has contributed to research on the pathogenesis of hypertension, stroke and atherosclerosis, gene analyses of cardiovascular diseases, development of models for cardiovascular diseases (SHR, SHRSP) and cardiovascular and nutritional epidemiology.
Background and Aim: WHO-coordinated CARDIAC (Cardiovascular Disease and Alimentary Comparison) Study covering over 60 populations in the world revealed sodium(Na) intakes and Na/potasium(K) ratio checked by 24-hour urine (24U) samples were associated positively with the age–adjusted mortality rates of strokes, and therefore, Na and Na/K ratios of 24U were proven to be useful predictors of strokes.1.2 Since CARDIAC study also proved significant inverse association of 24U biomarkers of fish and soy intakes, taurine (T) and isoflavones (I) with the age-adjusted mortality rates of coronary heart diseases (CHD),2.3 we investigated the association of these biomarkers with the risks of CHD.
Methodology: About 100 males and 100 females aged 48-56, from each study site, 50 in total in the world, were invited to health examination for anthropological examination and automated blood pressure measurement as well as fasting blood sampling and 24U collection by using “aliquot cups” for collecting easily 1/40th of voided urine each time. The quintiles of 24UT(T1-5) and 24UI(I1-5) were analyzed in relation to cardiovascular risks.4
Findings: The group who excreted both lowest 24UT and 24UI, T1-I1, showed significantly (p<0.001) higher BMI and serum cholesterol after age and sex adjustment than the group who excreted both highest 24UT and 24UI, T5-I5. The Odds ratios of obesity and hypercholesterolemia in the lowest T1-I1 were 8.6 and 7.7, significantly (p<0.01, 0.001) higher than in the highest T5-I5, but Odds ratio of hypertension was 1.4, not significant.
Conclusion: 24UT and 24UI were strongly associated with obesity and hypercholesterolemia, 2 major risks of CHD. Therefore, 24UT and 24UI are the predictors for CHD. When these are combined with 24UNa and 24UK, these 24U biomarkers obtained noninvasively are useful for objective estimation of individual nutritional situation and risk assessment of CHD and stroke, thus can be predictors for 2 major cardiovascular diseases.
University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Dr. Jens Byskov graduated from the University of Copenhagen, Denmark as a Medical Doctor with later specialty in Public Health, and from London School of Tropical Medicine as MSc in Community Health in Developing Countries. He has worked with research and capacity development for health systems within the Danish Institute for Health Research and Development and has been residing in African countries over 10 years. He has coordinated multicountry health systems studies. Being Emeritus from the University of Copenhagen he works as a research and health systems technical advisor in the School of Public Health of the University of Zambia.
The ever-increasing evidence and technical developments supporting population health has not yet reached the goal of health for all. The decision making for population health has not led to optimally accountable, fair and sustainable solutions. Technical experts, politicians, managers, service providers, community members, and beneficiaries each have their own values, expertise and preferences, to be considered for necessary buy-in and sustainability. Some of these are well recognized and partly addressed, but those not addressed or hidden constitute vested interests that may be the main constraint for achieving population health. We present and test a hypothesis that health for all and sustainable population health are indeed synonymous. We next search for explicit or implicit concurrence with the hypothesis in the implicit or explicit practice of health systems and associated research. For a start this will be done by reviews of available systems plans, reports and published research. It will be discussed whether results are associated with the existing degree of national or subnational level democratic practice. If the hypothesis holds a greater democratization in health systems practice will be suggested as an ethical imperative.
- Public Health and Epidemiology | Community Nutrition | Occupational Health | Nursing | Mental Health
Location: Bleriot 1
Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata di Trieste, Italy
VIA University College
Ministry of Health, Portugal
Sandra Moreira has her experience occupational health and safety, environmental health and public health, areas developed in entities of the ministry of health and the ministry of environment. With postgraduate in “Management and environmental policies” his research associated green jobs and occupational health issues; Lia Vasconcelos, Professor at the Department of Environmental Engineering, New University of Lisbon and researcher at MARE- Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre focuses her research on innovative decision-making processes in public policy in environmental management; Carlos Silva Santos, Professor at the Department of Occupational Health, New University of Lisbon and coordinator of Occupational Health Program of Portugal in the Directorate-General of Health.
Statement of the Problem: Many workers are exposed to unacceptable occupational risks, being victims of occupational diseases and serious accidents at work, a huge public health problem. The green jobs, being in line with the goals of sustainable development, have an un-precedent opportunity to ensure a healthy functioning of the Earth's ecosystems, but also decent work for all workers and high levels of workers' health and well-being, including the coverage of the working population by Occupational Health and Safety Services. However, green jobs are not necessarily a safe, healthy and decent work. The purpose of this study is the development of a methodological tool to analyze and monitor the green jobs in the context of Occupational Health and Safety.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: An investigation of Occupational Health Indicators was performed in combination with a literature review. The resulting tool of Occupational Health Indicators was based on the existing information of “Annual Activity of the Health and Safety at Work Service”. These indicators were applied to 281,124 local units/establishments and 2,780,686 workers in Portugal.
Results: A tool developed integrating 40 Occupational Health Indicators in four key fields established by World Health Organization in its conceptual framework “Health indicators of sustainable jobs”. The tool assesses if the green jobs follows the principles and requirements of Occupational Health and if these jobs are as good for the environment as for the workers` health, essential conditions to be considered quality jobs and an expression of social responsibility.
Conclusion & Significance: It is urgent an adequate monitoring of green jobs in the context of occupational health, a requirement that should not be underestimated if sustainable development is to be achieved. Occupational Health Indicators are indispensable to take into account in the definition and evaluation of policies and strategies of the sustainable development.
Seonam University, South Korea
Dr. Jungwon Yoon has been graduated from Inje university school of medicine, as Medical Doctor. with the specialties including Pediatrics, Respiratory and allergy. Later on she obtained his post-graduation from CHA University school of Medicion with subjects “Useful Marker of Oscillatory Lung Function in Methacholine Challenge Test - Comparison of Reactance and Resistance With Dose-Response Slope” and then started working at The Myongji Hospital, where she has been continuing her research
Urticaria is a common disorder, with a lifetime incidence of approximately 15%–20% of the general population. It is difficult to differentiate urticaria in children because of the similarity in symptoms between acute and chronic urticaria. There is also a lack of studies between vitamin D known as an important role in the immune system and urticaria in children. The present study aimed to assess the characteristics and allergen sensitization of young children diagnosed with urticaria and to evaluate the relationship between their vitamin D status and urticaria. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 218 children diagnosed as having urticaria at CHA and Myongji Hospitals between April 2013 and December 2014. The results of questionnaires and laboratory tests, including specific IgE and serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations were obtained. Of 218 patients, 118 (54%) were positive for at least 1 allergen and there was no significant difference in the prevalence of sensitization between the acute and chronic urticaria groups. However, the prevalence of polysensitization and sensitization of house dust mites was significantly higher in the chronic urticaria group than in the acute urticaria group (P=0.011 and P=0.029, respectively). Among the urticaria symptoms, an itching sensation was more associated with insufficient vitamin D status in children with urticaria (P=0.034). Our results demonstrated that children with chronic urticaria have a higher prevalence of sensitization to house dustmites and polysensitization. Further studies will need to determine whether the supply of vitamin D can improve itching sensation in urticaria children with an insufficient vitamin D status.
Lebanese University, Lebanon
Prof. Associate Bilal Hotayt is certified as Gastroenterologist and Hepatologist. He was born in 1979 and graduated from the Saint Joseph University of Beirut, Hotel Dieu de France and Georges Pampidou Medical Center at France. He has also a Master Degree in Clinical Nutrition and Diploma University in Nutritional management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. He is a lecturer at the Nutrition and Dietetics Department at the Faculty of Public Health at the Lebanese University. His Research interests lie in the area of public health and diseases, ranging from surveys to clinical trials. In recent years, he has focused on studying the effect of nutritional interventions on health community's outcomes. More than 7 clinical trials in collaboration with Pharmaceutical companies are in process and under his guidance aiming to improve the quality of life of communities affected with gastrointestinal diseases living in the developing countries.
Background and aims: Nutrition in IBD has long been a concern. Many dietary items are suspected to exacerbate the disease symptoms, of which their restriction from diets places the patients at serious nutritional risks. The aim of this study is to investigate the difference in food intolerances between IBDs, evaluate IBD patients’ nutritional risk and status.
Methods: A total of 50 patients with IBDs (28 crohn’s, 15 ulcerative colitis and 7 general IBD) were included in this cross-sectional study. A questionnaire targeting dietary habits and food intolerances was filled, along with a food frequency questionnaire and an SGA evaluation. Anthropometrics and body composition were measured to assess the nutritional status of the patients.
Results: Charcuterie: sausage, pate, salami (p=0.035), green or black olives (p=0.033), leek (p=0.03), white bread (p=0.017), breakfast cereals (p=0.049), spices (p=0.035) and condiments showed a significant difference in tolerance between the diseases. Vitamin D and the trace elements copper, zinc and calcium were totally deficient in participants. Deficiency of other vitamins and trace elements was seen in more than half of the population. 10% of the population were underweight, 40% within normal range and 50% were overweight and obese.
Conclusions: IBD patients tend to modify their dietary intake in order to affect digestive tract symptoms. The elimination of food items increases the risk of deficiency in these patients. No one item may be specified as intolerant, for the variability in items’ effects between disease patients. The indication is to follow a personalized diet and to follow up with a specialist.
Pr. Associate Maha Hoteit is the Director of Master Program in Public Health Nutrition at the Faculty of Public Health at the Lebanese University. She was born in 1986 and she has a PhD in Human Nutrition-Nutrigenomics. Her Research interests lie in the area of public health nutrition, ranging from surveys to clinical trials than to policies implementation. In recent years, she has focused on studying the effect of nutritional interventions on health community's outcomes by spreading the term "Public Health Nutrition". More than 20 publications observed lights between 2016 and 2017 aiming to improve the quality of life of communities living in the developing countries. Main outcomes and topics were Non-Communicable diseases, Fruits and vegetables, Mediterranean diet, smoking and body weight, physical activity and body markers, autism and Nutrition, Body image and healthy lifestyle, Inflammatory bowel disease and nutrition and Vitamin D and Calcium supplementation in elderly.
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may have restrictive and ritualistic behaviors that affect their eating habits.
Aim: To identify and understand the feeding behavior and eating habits issues in ASD children when compared to matched typically developing (TD) children. Furthermore, to assist in how to address feeding issues with parents/caregivers 'seeking for dealing with these habits and behaviors.
Methods and procedures: Case-control study included 86 participants (43 children with ASD and 43 matched TD controls). Feeding behavior and eating habits were assessed using two valid questionnaires: "Behavior Pediatric Feeding Assessment"(BPFA) and "My Child Eating Habits questionnaires" respectively.
Results and outcomes: ASD children had higher BPFA scores for total frequency and problem scores (p=0.001, p<0.001) and higher mealtime behavior problems than TD children. No differences between groups neither in refusing food when based on presentation, color, texture nor in preferring based on crunchiness, smoothness, and temperature (p>0.05) was observed. ASD children's parents had higher food refusal dealing strategies and therapy seeking (p=0.017).
Conclusion and implications: Most of the children with ASD have difficulties with sensory processing and this can make eating certain foods a challenge for them, thus limiting food refusal and preference. Children with autism can also develop behavioral problems during mealtimes and their parents adopt certain strategies to deal with these behaviors. These findings allow us to endorse the importance of incorporating the evaluation of nutritional and feeding behavior problems within the clinical routine in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies that lead to weight loss, malnutrition and inadequate growth.
VIA University College, Denmark
Dr. Kirsten Nielsen has been Graduated from The University of Southern Denmark with the PhD thesis Learning nursing skills in clinical training mediated by ePortfolio and from The University of Aarhus, Denmark as a Master in Science of Nursing with the thesis Learning of competencies in the classroom. She is employed as a senior lecturer, programme coordinator, and researcher in The School of Nursing, Campus Holstebro, where she coordinates the Nursing Programme and continues research into the area of learning. Recently investigation of learning possibilities of learning in clinical placements versus simulation lab and changes in students preferred learning styles.
Nurses have an important social task contributing to health of the population. Therefore, Schools of Nursing need knowledge of different ways of learning in order to facilitate the highest level of nursing competencies. The aim of this presentation is to summarize the findings of a study investigating changes in nursing students´ preferred learning styles during their first clinical course. According to The Learning Styles Helper´s Guide by Honey and Mumford the concept of preferred learning style indicates the most rewarding way of learning for an individual and means the habitual manner of which the learner perceives and process, what has to be learned and makes it her or his own realization. It is not a fixed trait and no-one represents a pure type. Instead a learner has an individual learning style profile and the possibility to develop the other learning styles. Honey and Mumford describes four learning styles: activist, reflector, theorist, and pragmatic style. It is appropriate to begin to learn with the preferred learning style to succeed in the learning process. Though afterwards, the student can benefit from developing the ability to learn in other ways, as more powerful and adaptive forms of learning emerge, when the strategies are used in combination. Besides, when students are conscious of how to learn, they can facilitate learning of their patients and continue their own life-long learning. It is important for nurses to maximize their learning potentials in order to meet the patients´ complex and ever-changing individual needs for nursing.
Kyungbok University, Republic of Korea
Jeongwoon Yang is working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Nursing Science, Kyungbok University. Earlier she worked as a Senior Research Assistant of Community Mental Health Nursing in Research Institute of Nursing Science, Seoul National University. She did Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing Science and Master of Public Health from Seoul National University.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Motivational Interviewing (MI) training program on communication skill and self-efficacy of home visiting nurses (HVNs).
Methods: This study has a mixed-methods design that includes a one-group pre-post test study and focus group interviews (N=23). From April 16th to June 11th in 2014, total six two-hour sessions of MI training program were provided to the participants. The quantitative outcomes were collected using Global Interpersonal Communication Competence Scale (GICC-15) and Self-efficacy Scale, and the qualitative data were obtained by 5 focus group interviews. Group pre-post changes were evaluated by paired t-tests and the qualitative data were analyzed by content analysis method.
Results: MI training program led to significant enhancement in communication skills (Z=-3.62, p<.001) and self-efficacy (Z=-3.67, p<.001). The qualitative study revealed that the participants had positive experiences to express empathy, support self-efficacy, and respect autonomy for their clients applying reflective-listening and affirmation skill.
Conclusion: The HVNs who participated in the MI training program showed improved communication skills and self-efficacy in the quantitative and qualitative studies. A randomized clinical trial is needed to confirm the value of MI training program for HVNs.
Mayo Institute of Medical Sciences, India
Dr. Arvind Kumar is currently working as an Associate Professor in Dept. of Surgery in Mayo Institute of Medical Sciences, Barabanki, India. He is teaching surgery to Medical students since 2013. He has studied at GSVM medical college Kanpur, India and worked as a Consultant at various district level hospitals in Uttar Pradesh province of India. He is located in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.
Aims and objective: This study was conducted to check that whether bilateral vaginal hydrocoele can be a cause of primary infertility in males.
Material and Method: Study was conducted in Department of General Surgery Mayo Institute of Medical Sciences, Barabanki 225001 U.P. India from September 2013 to January 2016. 345 Male cases were included with youngest patient of age 27 & eldest of 53 years, out of which only 12 cases fell truly in definition of primary infertility. Only cases of primary infertility were taken into account, patient with unilateral hydrocoele and varicocoele were excluded.
Results: Result showed that Bilateral hydrocoele has no effect on male infertility.
Conclusion: We conclude that bilateral hydrocoele does not affect spermatogenesis & has no effect on male fertility.
University of Venda, South Africa
Dr Angelina Maphula is a qualified clinical Psychologist, her expertise is in child development and improving the health and well-being of children. Between 2009-2017 she was part of the MAL-ED project team in the South Africa site as a team member and as a psychology component supervisor from 2012 - MAL-ED Network (comprising sites in Brazil, Peru, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Tanzania) in which among others looked at the impact of enteric infections/diarrheal diseases that alter gut function and impair children's nutrition, growth and development. Dr. Maphula was also part of the VHEMBE Study – CERCH supervising neuropsychological assessments. Her strongest attribute is visible through collaboration and her expertise on child assessment in a rural setting continue to grow.
Research in developing countries suggests that poor maternal mental health, in particular, maternal depression, may be a risk factor for poor growth in young children. Women are particularly prone in the postpartum period because of the hormonal changes associated with childbirth and stressors associated with parenting. The combination of women’s vulnerability to depression, their responsibility for childcare and the high prevalence of maternal depression in developing countries means that maternal mental health in these countries could have a substantial influence on growth during childhood. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of maternal depressive symptoms on infant child development in a rural community of South Africa. The Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20 developed to screen for depressive symptoms was administered at 6 and 24 months, baseline demographic and socio-economic data was collected at month 0 using a standardized questionnaire and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III (BSID-III) was used to assess child cognitive, language, motor and social development at 6 and 24 months of age. Six months maternal depression remained the only significant predictor of infants’ later development. Maternal depressive symptoms showed a strong negative relationship with child cognition (p<0.029), expressive language (p<0.021) and fine motor (p<0.024). Only maternal depressive symptoms emerged as a significant predictor of poor child development.
Dr. Vikas Kaushal is a trusted patient and community-oriented doctor seeking a position in a hospital as well as in community set up to acquire more practical knowledge. A seasoned Health Professional having a proven track record in public Health. Highly motivated, dedicated and clinically competent general practitioner with experience in Public Health Program, Counterparts and system from a range of cultural backgrounds. He is committed to pursuing a role in which he can help people maintain their health and quality of life.
Statement of the Problem: Immunization is the most important component of primary health care system and is very much responsible for any nation’s health security. World over, in developing and underdeveloped countries inadequate levels of immunization against childhood diseases remain a significant public health problem. The urban average growth rate is 3% while the urban slums growth rate is double at 5-6%. The stark living conditions in slums—characterized by extreme population density, poor sanitation, and a lack of access to basic health services—encourage a host of health challenges.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The present study was conducted in the urban slums of Karimnagar town to study the status of immunization coverage and to study the nutritional status. The informant was either of the parents or grandparents. All the children in the age group of 1 to 5 years were the study subjects. The informant was either of the parents or grandparents.
Findings: According to WHO 30 cluster technique out of 660, 529 (80.2%) were fully immunized and 131 (19.8%) were partially immunized. This difference of immunization status of children between the religions (χ2=39.384), family types (χ2=42.718), mother’s Knowledge on immunization, distance of immunization center (χ2=310.194) was found to be statistically significant (df=2, p<0.01 and p=0.002, respectively). The relation between low birth weight, malnutrition and sex of child is statistically significant (χ2=24.001, df=4, p<0.001). The relation between immunization status of child and malnutrition and difference of immunization status of children between presences of at least one morbidity condition was also found to be statistically significant (χ2=25.324, df=1, p<0.001).
Conclusion & Significance: There is an urgent need to strengthen the existing immunization program among the marginalized communities like those residing in urban slums. Special emphasis should be placed on proper and adequate counseling of parents regarding the benefits of immunization.
King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
Dr. Wafa S. AlAlyani has been Graduated from the Faculty of Dentistry of King Abdulaziz University with a Bachelor of Dental Medicine and Surgery. Completed online non-credit courses in Violence, Psychology, and Social Surveys. And started working on domestic violence research in collaboration with the Department of Dental Public Health, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Objectives: To identify the potential factors that would predict a dentist’s awareness of domestic violence (DV), as well as the factors that influence the probability of dentists to take the required action. Also, to list the common barriers that dentists face when managing DV victims.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a self- administered, structured questionnaire was sent randomly to dentists practicing in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The online survey link was emailed with a cover message that illustrated the study context. Responses were accepted from January 2016 until the end of February 2016. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate analysis carried out to identify significant variables at p<0.05 level of significance.
Results: A sample size of 151 responses were recruited. The result of multivariate models indicated that the odds of dentists’ awareness and taking actions towards DV victims were influenced by their education, clinical experience, gender, practicing sector, and qualification. Lack of training in identifying DV and embarrassment to bring up DV with patients were the most common barriers for the respondents when treating DV victims.
Conclusion: Continuing education with regards to DV was found to be the most relevant predictor. More educational courses in this regard would empower dentists to support DV victims.
Massey University, New Zealand
Paul Eme is a currently a PhD student of the School of Health Science, Massey University, New Zealand. He had first and second degree in Human Nutrition from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. He is from Igbo indigenous group with some knowledge on the cultural values of these indigenous peoples. He participated as a Research assistant in collection of data in a World Bank project on ‘Food Composition Database for Nigeria’ which is at its end stage now. His doctoral research is on developing, harmonizing, validating sustainable diets methodologies and metrics of Sustainable food systems in Pacific Island Countries. He has over 25 publications in the area of nutritional assessments, nutritional testing and evaluations (using rat and human subjects) and development of nutrition education packages. He has advanced skills in advanced data analyses using SPSS, EPI-Info and Epi-Data Softwares.
Statement of problem: Macro and micronutrient malnutrition are public health concerns in most Pacific Small Island Developing States including Kiribati, partly due to monotonous, cereal-based diets that deficit diversity. This study aimed to assess the dietary intakes of adult population in South Tarawa, Kiribati.
Methods: A cross-sectional, community-based study sampled 161 households that were randomly selected from Betio, Bikenibeu and Teaorereke towns. Ethical approval and informed consent were obtained from the respected authority and subjects respectively. Family dietary surveys including 24-hour dietary recall were implemented to assess dietary diversity using Household Diet Diversity Scores. A 3-day weighed food record (a detailed dietary survey analysis) was carried out on the sub-sample (10%) of the sample size. Data were analysed using FoodWorks Pro 8 for nutrient intake and Statistical Product for Service Solution version 21 for descriptive statistics.
Results: The mean ±SD of Energy Density for males and females was 5.00±2.39 kcal/g and 4.39 ±2.64 kcal/g. The majority (87.5%) of the subjects consumed high energy dense foods and only 1.3% consumed low energy dense foods. About 90% of the subjects consumed rice-based dishes, 77.8% consumed flour-based dishes, and 33.3% consumed breadfruit based dishes. Sixty-one percent of the subjects had the lowest dietary diversity, 36.3% had a medium dietary diversity and only 2.7% had the highest dietary diversity. Based on the weighed food record results, the males’ subjects of all age groups had adequate intake of riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, iron and zinc but had consumed excess protein, sodium and magnesium and low intake of potassium and calcium. The females’ subjects had adequate intake of vitamin C, iron and zinc but had consumed excess protein, sodium and magnesium and low intake of potassium and calcium. Conclusion: Nutrient inadequacies are prevalent among the households in South Tarawa. Recommendation: Food-based dietary diversity approaches are highly recommended.
The University of Zambia, Zambia
Nkandu Chibwe is a nutritionist in the Ministry of Health. Nkandu has served in the Ministry for 20 years now. She has a passion for infants and young children especially in the areas of breastfeeding and complementary feeding. This has helped her to maintain levels of Malnutrition in the district below acceptable levels. She has vast experience in conducting various training because of her experience in clinical skills training. She just obtained her Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Zambia in Human Nutrition in 2015. She recently conducted her first research under the guidance of a lecturer Dr. Marinda Pamela and published in Public Health Biomed Central Journal. However, she has assisted in conducting research five times at different times with other organisations. Nkandu lives in Choma Southern Zambia and holds a Diploma in Food and Nutrition and a Bachelor of Science in Human Nutrition.
Background: Option B+ recommends lifelong antiretroviral treatment for all pregnant and breastfeeding women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. The study aimed at investigating challenges and opportunities in implementing IYCF in the context of PMTCT guidelines among HIV infected mothers of children aged 0–24 months. The study also examined implications presented by implementing the 2013 PMTCT consolidated guidelines in the transition phase from the 2010 approach in Zambia.
Method: A mixed methods approach was employed in the descriptive cross-sectional study utilizing semi-structured questionnaires and Focused Group Discussions. Further, data was captured from the HIMS.
Results: During the PMTCT transition, associated needs and challenges in institutionalizing the enhanced guidelines from option A and B to option B+ were observed. Nonetheless, there was a decline in MTCT of HIV rates with an average of 4%. Mothers faced challenges in complying with optimal breastfeeding practices owing to lack of community support systems and breast infections due to poor breastfeeding occasioned by infants’ oral health challenges. Moreover, some mothers were hesitant of lifelong ARVs. Health workers faced programmatic and operational challenges such as compromised counseling services.
Conclusion: Despite the ambitious timelines for PMTCT transition, the need to inculcate new knowledge and very known practice among mothers and the shift in counseling content for health workers, the consolidated guidelines for PMTCT proved effective. Some mothers were hesitant of lifelong ARVs, rationalizing the debated paradigm that prolonged chemotherapy/polypharmacy may be a future challenge in the success of ART in PMTCT. Conflicting breastfeeding practices was a common observation across mothers thus underpinning the need to strongly invigorate IYCF information sharing across the continuum of health care from facility level to community and up to the family; for cultural norms, practices, and attitudes enshrined within communities play a vital role in childcare.
Inha University, South Korea
Professor Kim and Seon-Yeong Park has been studying soil improvement and water resource storage technologies such as evaluation of neutralization ability of acid soil and artificial recharge technology of groundwater in the Soil and Groundwater Environment Laboratory at Inha University. And also, environmental impacts and decomposition mechanism of micropollutants i.e., pharmaceuticals and microplastics.
Due to increasing the use and disposal of plastics or micro-bead, micro-plastics (MPs) contamination threaten the aquatic and marine ecosystem. MPs can effect on cell viability, cell morphological change, or cause endocrine hormone disturbance phenomena. They can also migrate long distance by local wind or ocean current, adsorbing persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals and extraneous cell on their surface that can adverse effect on aboriginal organisms. While recent studies focused on the distribution and ecological effect of these pollutants, there is still a comparative lack of knowledge about their biological decomposition mechanism and biodegradability. In this study, the biodegradability of polyethylene (PE) has been investigated by using the mesophilic mixed microbial consortium isolated from the practical landfill site in Incheon, Korea. PE is dominant type of polymer component of MPs. PE (H(CH2CH2)nH) with a medium density of 0.94 g/mL (at 25) was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (USA). PE particles were white and amorphous granular shape sized in the range of approximately 200 to 600 μm in a diameter. Mixed microbial consortia were identified as Brevibacillus parabrevis and Paenibacillus chitinolyticus. For PE biodegradation test, 1 mL of mixed culture (O.D600=1.2) were inoculated in the 100 mL of freshly autoclaved Basal medium containing 100 mg of PE as the carbon source. The cultivation was carried out at 30 and 150 rpm. The decomposition was analysed through the measurement of weight loss, scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM 4300 SE, Hitachi) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, VERTEX 80V, Bruker). After 60 days of decomposition, dry weight loss of PE were 14.7% and mean particle size decreased from 224.57 μm to 175.74 μm. From the SEM images, some microbes were strongly attached on the PE surfaces verifying that they can have the potential of PE utilization.